«Quien tenga medios económicos para abortar en el extranjero lo hará»

congreso bioetica 04.jpg15.05.13 – 00:23 –

JAVIER FERNÁNDEZ | GIJÓN Diario El Comercio
«La crisis trae dilemas éticos que ya teníamos superados, como la accesibilidad al sistema sanitario y la equidad  en el tratamiento»
Ricardo de Dios Médico y secretario del Comité Ético del Área Sanitaria I

Ricardo de Dios (León, 1969), secretario del Comité de Ética del Área Sanitaria I, presentó ayer en el VII Congreso Mundial de Bioética las conclusiones del trabajo ‘¿Qué dilemas éticos tienen nuestros médicos?’. Advierte este médico del Hospital de Jarrio que si la reforma de la ley del aborto que prepara Alberto Ruiz Gallardón sale adelante «volverán los viajes al extranjero». También asegura que la crisis ha traído problemas que la sanidad española ya había superado.

-¿Es frecuente que un médico se encuentre con un dilema ético?

-Muy frecuente. Ante estos dilemas se tiene que encontrar un espacio común entre la ciencia y la sociedad. Imaginemos el caso de un paciente que es testigo de Jehová y necesita una transfusión de sangre pero la rechaza. El médico defiende que le salvará la vida en un 90% de los casos mientras que si no se la pone ese porcentaje baja al 20%. O, por ejemplo, casos de mujeres que dan a luz y piden la placenta. Se generan dudas sobre qué hacer.

-¿Este tipo de casos señalan vacíos legales o leyes mal hechas o es más bien un problema cultural?

-Es más un tema sociocultural. Los principios en un estado democrático van cambiando hacia una mayor autonomía para el paciente. Los médicos veníamos de una visión más paternalista, pero cada vez eso funciona menos y tenemos que pactar el curso terapéutico con el paciente, quien puede negarse porque no encaja en sus valores.

-¿Esa tendencia hacia una mayor autonomía no choca con determinadas posturas políticas acerca del aborto o la eutanasia?

-Claro, claro. Ahora mismo hay un movimiento social que plantea el debate de la eutanasia y del suicidio médico asistido, es decir, decidir cómo salimos de este proceso vital. Piden una ley que regule esa situación como la que hay en Holanda, Bélgica y otros países europeos. El aborto, por otro lado, es cómo entramos en la vida. Si no tienes un amparo legislativo acaba siendo un delito, con lo cual no te dejan expresar esa autonomía.

-¿Los médicos españoles se enfrentan con mayor frecuencia a estos dilemas que sus colegas europeos?

-En España empieza a haber grupos vulnerables que no pueden acceder al sistema, como el caso del inmigrante enfermo de tuberculosis al que no se aplicó el tratamiento y acabó falleciendo. Esta crisis nos está trayendo dilemas y debates éticos que ya teníamos superados, como el tema de la accesibilidad y la equidad en el tratamiento. Esto es, que ante una enfermedad tratemos a todo el mundo por igual.

-¿Cuáles son las diferencias en el caso concreto del aborto?

-La postura en Europa es muy parecida a la de la ley que nosotros tenemos vigente en este momento.

-¿Significa eso que la reforma que plantea el Gobierno es un paso atrás?

-Hay que ver cómo va a ser articulada, pero yo creo que sí. No nos pone en la línea europea en absoluto.

-¿Volverán entonces los viajes al extranjero para abortar?

-Hay un porcentaje de la población que seguirá interrumpiendo su embarazo y quien tenga medios económicos para hacerlo en el extranjero lo hará. O volverán algunas prácticas con riesgo para la salud de la mujer.

-El marco que establecen las organizaciones internacionales en esta línea, ¿es tan holgado como para abarcar posturas tan enfrentadas como las que generan el aborto o la eutanasia?

-Sí. Hay que buscar, en mi opinión, un espacio público donde mis valores puedan ser expresados y los tuyos también. Si no quiero seguir adelante con una gestación y no se me permite, se me están imponiendo unos valores. Con leyes más permisivas, nadie obliga a nadie a acogerse al derecho al aborto o la eutanasia. El que quiere puede hacerlo y el que no quiere, pues no.

-Imagino que a los médicos les resulta complicado afrontar sobre el terreno este tipo de debates…

-Sí, es terrible. Hay situaciones muy delicadas, porque que está en juego la vida. Por eso creo que este tipo de congresos y el que existan comités de ética en los hospitales permite a personas ajenas al caso ayudar al facultativo, que ya tiene una carga emocional muy marcada.

-Cuando saltaron las alarmas de la epidemia de la gripe A, ¿sabían los médicos que esa urgencia no era tal?

-La OMS dio la alarma y, efectivamente, había corrientes críticas. Pero como consejero o ministro estás en una postura complicada. Si la epidemia existe y no te has hecho con las vacunas es tu población la que puede sufrirla. Y la alerta venía del máximo organismo en la materia… Habrá que investigar si algún lobby farmacéutico influyó en cómo se planteó al resto del mundo esa posible pandemia.

Esta entrada fue publicada en Opinión, Prensa. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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